Learning
Accounting

 

Accounting

Why Study Accounting?

Accounting involves modelling, forecasting and providing advice to stakeholders through the process of collecting, recording, reporting, analysing and interpreting financial and non-financial data and accounting information. This data and information is communicated to internal and external stakeholders and is used to inform decision-making within the business with a view to improving business performance. Accounting plays an integral role in the successful operation and management of businesses.

VCE Accounting prepares students for a university or TAFE vocational study pathway to commerce, management and accounting, leading to careers in areas such as financial accounting, management accounting, forensic/ investigative accounting, taxation, environmental accounting, management and corporate or personal financial planning.


Structure

The study is made up of four units:

Unit 1: Role of accounting in business
Unit 2: Accounting and decision-making for a trading business
Unit 3: Financial accounting for a trading business
Unit 4: Recording, reporting, budgeting and decision-making

Outcomes  

Outcomes define what students will know and be able to do as a result of undertaking the study. Outcomes include a summary statement and the key knowledge and skills that underpin them.  

Unit 1: Role of accounting in business  

This unit explores the establishment of a business and the role of accounting in the determination of business success or failure. In this, it considers the importance of accounting information to stakeholders. Students analyse, interpret and evaluate the performance of the business using financial and non-financial information. They use these evaluations to make recommendations regarding the suitability of a business as an investment. Students record financial data and prepare reports for service businesses owned by sole proprietors.

Where appropriate, the accounting procedures developed in each area of study should incorporate the application of the Conceptual Framework and financial indicators to measure business performance, and take into account the range of ethical considerations faced by business owners when making decisions, including financial, social and environmental.

Area of Study 1

The role of accounting

Outcome 1

On completion of this unit the student should be able to describe the resources required to establish and operate a business, and select and use accounting reports and other information to discuss the success or otherwise of the business.


Area of Study 2

Recording financial data and reporting accounting information for a service business

Outcome 2

On completion of this unit the student should be able to identify and record financial data, report and explain accounting information for a service business, and suggest and apply appropriate financial and non-financial indicators to measure business performance.

 

Unit 2: Accounting and decision-making for a trading business

In this unit students develop their knowledge of the accounting process for sole proprietors operating a trading business, with a focus on inventory, accounts receivable, accounts payable and non-current assets. Students use manual processes and ICT, including spreadsheets, to prepare historical and budgeted accounting reports. Students analyse and evaluate the performance of the business relating to inventory, accounts receivable, accounts payable and non-current assets. They use relevant financial and other information to predict, budget and compare the potential effects of alternative strategies on the performance of the business. Using these evaluations, students develop and suggest to the owner strategies to improve business performance.

Where appropriate, the accounting procedures developed in each area of study should incorporate application of the Conceptual Framework, financial indicators and ethical considerations for business owners when making business decisions, including financial, social and environmental.

Area of Study 1

Accounting for inventory

Outcome 1

On completion of this unit the student should be able to record and report for inventory and discuss the effect of relevant financial and non-financial factors, and ethical considerations, on the outcome of business decisions.

Area of Study 2

Accounting for and managing accounts receivable and accounts payable

Outcome 2

On completion of this unit the student should be able to record and report for accounts receivable and accounts payable, and analyse and discuss the effect of relevant decisions on the performance of the business including the influence of ethical considerations.

Area of Study 3

Accounting for and managing non-current assets

Outcome 3

On completion of this unit the student should be able to record and report for non-current assets and depreciation.

 

Unit 3: Financial accounting for a trading business

This unit focuses on financial accounting for a trading business owned by a sole proprietor, and highlights the role of accounting as an information system. Students use the double entry system of recording financial data and prepare reports using the accrual basis of accounting and the perpetual method of inventory recording. Students develop their understanding of the accounting processes for recording and reporting and consider the effect of decisions made on the performance of the business. They interpret reports and information presented in a variety of formats and suggest strategies to the owner to improve the performance of the business.

Where appropriate, the accounting procedures developed in each area of study should incorporate the application of the Conceptual Framework, financial indicators to measure business performance, as well as the ethical considerations of business owners when making decisions, including financial, social and environmental.

Area of Study 1

Recording and analysing financial data

Outcome 1

On completion of this unit the student should be able to record financial data using a double entry system; explain the role of the General Journal, General Ledger and inventory cards in the recording process; and describe, discuss and analyse various aspects of the accounting system

Area of Study 2

Preparing and interpreting accounting reports

Outcome 2

On completion of this unit the student should be able to record transactions and prepare, interpret and analyse accounting reports for a trading business.

 

Unit 4: Recording, reporting, budgeting and decision-making

In this unit students further develop their understanding of accounting for a trading business owned by a sole proprietor and the role of accounting as an information system. Students use the double entry system of recording financial data, and prepare reports using the accrual basis of accounting and the perpetual method of inventory recording. Both manual methods and ICT are used to record and report. Students extend their understanding of the recording and reporting process with the inclusion of balance day adjustments and alternative depreciation methods. They investigate both the role and importance of budgeting in decision-making for a business. They analyse and interpret accounting reports and graphical representations to evaluate the performance of a business. From this evaluation, students suggest strategies to business owners to improve business performance.

Where appropriate, the accounting procedures developed in each area of study should incorporate application of the Conceptual Framework and financial indicators to measure business performance, as well as the ethical considerations of business owners when making decisions, including financial, social and environmental.

Area of Study 1

Extension of recording and reporting

Outcome 1

On completion of this unit the student should be able to record financial data and balance day adjustments using a double entry system, report accounting information using an accrual-based system and evaluate the effect of balance day adjustments and alternative methods of depreciation on accounting reports.

Area of Study 2

Budgeting and decision-making

Outcome 2

On completion of this unit the student should be able to prepare budgeted accounting reports and variance reports for a trading business using financial and other relevant information, and model, analyse and discuss the effect of alternative strategies on the performance of a business

Assessment

Satisfactory Completion

The award of satisfactory completion for a unit is based on a decision that the student has demonstrated achievement of the set of outcomes specified for the unit. This decision will be based on the teacher’s assessment of the student’s performance on assessment tasks designated for the unit.

Levels of Achievement

Units 1 and 2

Emmaus College students complete graded Assessment Tasks and Semester Examinations as part of the Assessment process for Units 1 and 2.

Units 3 and 4

The Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority will supervise the assessment of all students undertaking Units 3 and 4. In the study of VCE Accounting students’ level of achievement will be determined in Unit 3 by School-assessed Coursework and in Unit 4 by School-assessed Coursework and an end-of-year examination.

Percentage contributions to the study score in VCE Accounting are as follows:

Unit 3 School-assessed Coursework 25%
Unit 4 School-assessed Coursework 25%
End-of-year examination 50%